Ending the Arms Race with Infectious Diseases – Janelle Ayres at TEDxSanDiego 2016

There’s a war going on in the U.S. that you may not know exists.

“The scary fact is that it’s an arms race that we can never win,” said Janelle Ayres to start her talk at TEDxSanDiego.

So what is this war Ayres speaks of that is not winnable? Infectious diseases.

No, there are no real guns and ammunition involved in this war, but doctors and scientists have been throwing an arsenal of antibiotics at infectious diseases for many, many years to no avail.

Dr. Ayres, who has a PhD from Stanford University School of Medicine in Microbiology and Immunology, focuses her research on both infectious and non-infectious diseases, particularly the microbiome living on our bodies, as a means to end these diseases and prevent antibiotic resistance.

“Instead of asking ‘how do we fight infections?’ we should be asking ‘how do we survive infections?’,” Ayres said. “And I know that single word change from fight to survive seems simple, but by making that single change, we’ve completely changed the meaning of the question. And if we can understand the answer to this question, we will completely change the way we treat infectious diseases.”

Ayres and her team at the Salk Institute are working on developing strategies that promote survival without driving drug resistance – all to find a way to win the war against pestilence.

“We’re all vulnerable to the threat of contracting an infectious disease, and we’re all terrified of that threat,” she said. “But if you leave here with one thing today, I want you to leave here believing that there’s hope.”

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Magical, Mystical, Mysterious Clemencies – Justin Brooks at TEDxSanDiego 2016

We see it each year at Thanksgiving time. A small crowd on The White House lawn, family members of the President gathered around while the star of the show, a turkey, is granted a pardon from becoming the day’s meal from the President himself.

With presidential clemency powers, it is within the president’s rights to save a bird (or two) each year, but more importantly, this power grants the President the right to pardon wrongfully imprisoned people.

This power has been exercised numerous times throughout history for not only full release from federal prison, but also to reduce sentences.

Along with the President, governors are provided the same power at the state level. This is significant because, as Justin Brooks, director and co-founder of the California Innocence Project, said, the United States incarcerates more people than any country in the world – most of which are incarcerated in state prisons. Additionally, California is the state with the most people in prison.

“To get a case opened in California is an incredible task,” Brooks said during his talk at TEDxSanDiego. “To un-ring that bell to get a court to say ‘we’re going to take a second look at this case’ … it’s a really difficult process.

To catch the attention of California Governor Jerry Brown, and in turn his clemency powers, Brooks and his team identified 12 compelling cases from all cross sections of the state’s communities to take to Brown as a petition for clemency.

But just sending a petition wasn’t enough to get his petition. So Brooks, and two lawyers from his office, set out to walk the petitions all 712 miles from San Diego to the state capitol in Sacramento and hand deliver them to the governor’s office.

As the title of his TEDxSanDiego presentation alludes to, clemencies can be magical, mystical and mysterious, especially when you’re wondering what became of the 12 case petitions that were walked straight to the governor’s office.

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Postcards from the Future – Scott Klemmer at TEDxSanDiego 2016

Chances are someone in your life has imparted on you the mantra “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.”

In the world of design, this idea becomes a key aspect of prototypes. In fact, the very definition of prototype is “a first, typical or preliminary model of something, especially a machine, from which other forms are developed or copied.”

So why are prototypes so important to the world of design? According to Scott Klemmer, when you log onto a computer, chances are you’re part of an experiment. Here, designers are trying out different alternatives (or prototypes) to see what works best.

“I call this idea design at large,” said Klemmer, the co-founder and co-director of the Design Lab at UC San Diego. “It’s real world, at scale, and we’re being able to compare alternatives and learn from what we’re finding.”

During his talk at TEDxSanDiego, Klemmer went on to give various examples of prototypes that at first did not succeed, not because the people were necessarily smarter than others around them (although yes, they were really smart), but because they tried lots of things.

So what makes prototypes particularly magical?

“Prototypes instantiate a future that doesn’t exist yet,” said Klemmer. “And what designers do is we time travel just a little bit into the future with our prototypes and once we know what the world is like there we can send back these post cards that give information about what to really make.”

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